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The West and its futuristic weapons, obsolete facing the Islamist world war effort

During peace time, nations seem to have the unfortunate habit of preparing for a war resembling their last. In 1940, French soldiers were digging trenches, like they did during the Great War. However, this time, the Germans overcame their defenses with armored cars, bombed their positions with planes and deployed paratroopers behind their lines.

After armed conflicts, nations identify the factors that led to the escalation of threat. Following World War II, the Western world has identified the strong German nationalist sentiment, prompting Hitler to attempt to expand German territory eastward to strengthen Germany’s economic autonomy. We started to see the national and ethnic pride as inevitably leading to a military escalation. Nowadays, expressing pride in being a member of the majority is enough to be labeled as a hateful transgressor of the moral code.

Thus, since the second world war, nationalism, or ethnic pride, has become a value severely frowned upon, often criminally. In Germany, doing the Hitlergruß is punishable by a hefty fine. After every terrorist attack, many people’s first reaction is to fear that it reinforces the right-wing sentiment, as if it was a rampant and imminent threat, regardless of the political context (see picture). Diversity and openness towards minority cultures have become inalienable values of our society, to such an extent that the pride of the majority became strictly prohibited. In short, we are conditioned to identify and report signs of a potential nationalist emergence, considered extreme and threatening.

Ndo9sau.jpg
Racist Twitter users are literally more worrisome than 30 people being blown up in Brussels. 

Being prepared to face the factors that led to the Second World War, we are completely powerless against the new type of battle that Islam is waging against the world. It is impossible to fight Islamic terrorism without breaking the moral code we adopted to prevent another global catastrophe.

Confronting Islamic terrorism requires us to put aside our most cherished democratic values. Thus, discussions about potential preventive measures to counter terrorism quickly become chaotic, and do not result in concrete solutions. Having been socialized for decades to condemn the remarks that we perceive as potentially leading to a second World War II, we become unable to face the Islamic threat without breaking our moral code. Determined to learn from past mistakes, we have neglected other forms of ideological extremism.

Similarly, our military advances are useless to counter kamikaze attacks on our territory. We are also prepared for armed combat resembling the Second World War. We have weapons of an unprecedented diversity, like guns capable of firing 100 bullets per second, nuclear missiles, and guided missiles. However, these weapons are completely outdated to counter terrorism on our soil. Following a terrorist attack, the police arrives on the scene armed to the teeth, often to realize that the suicide bomber is already dead, and therefore, there is nothing to do. No need to mention that the aircraft carriers and anti-missile radars are useless in these cases.

We are ready to defend our borders, but this time the enemy is an ideology that crosses borders. We are prepared to prevent another Second World War, but we now face a new form of ideological conquest, against which our weapons are ineffective. We are digging trenches, while the Islamist paratroopers are already in our cities.

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Modern feminism is not about equal rights, it’s about thought control.

Very few people in the Western culture hold the opinion that women shouldn’t have the same rights as men. It is not of common discourse to oppose women’s right to vote, drive, or own property. In this way, a large majority of the Western population should, in theory, call themselves feminists. But, more and more, people reject the label of feminist. In a Huffington Post poll, more than 80% of respondents said that both sexes should have the same rights. Yet, only 20% said they identified as feminists. Fewer than one fourth of women said they were feminists.

Those who don’t identify as feminists do not, in most cases, reject the idea that the sexes are morally equal. What they oppose is that the pursuit of equality goes beyond equal rights and opportunities, and that there needs to be government thought policing. Too often, these policies are based on the view that women must, as a group, be competitive with men in the labor market, and any deviation from that ideal justifies government intervention.

The government’s thought control

The initial goals of women’s suffrage have been met. Women have the rights to work, own property, and vote. As such, they are entirely capable of being independent and autonomous. Yet, the feminist movements seems more active than ever.

While men and women have the same rights, the remaining feminist activists perceive that beliefs about gender prevent them from using the full potential of their equal rights. Therefore, the form of equality that seems to be the most pursued nowadays is the complete abolition of beliefs about men and women. The stance of the political elite is on par with this perspective.

In a public service announcement, Justin Trudeau, Canada’s openly feminist Prime Minister, declared the following:

Gendered discrimination is present in our everyday lives, too. Misogyny can creep into words, jokes and the media. We need to be conscientious and vigilant to stop it in all aspects of our society. We, men and women, need to be willing to stand up against sexism when it crosses our path in any form.

Barack Obama, also an outspoken feminist, had a similar standpoint in an article he wrote for Glamour:

In fact, the most important change may be the toughest of all—and that’s changing ourselves. All too often we are still boxed in by stereotypes about how men and women should behave. We know that these stereotypes affect how girls see themselves starting at a very young age, making them feel that if they don’t look or act a certain way, they are somehow less worthy. In fact, gender stereotypes affect all of us, regardless of our gender, gender identity, or sexual orientation. […] You see the subtle and not-so-subtle social cues transmitted through culture. […] We need to keep changing the attitude that raises our girls to be demure and our boys to be assertive, that criticizes our daughters for speaking out and our sons for shedding a tear, […] that punishes women for their sexuality and rewards men for theirs, […] that permits the routine harassment of women, […] that teaches men to feel threatened by the presence and success of women.

These quotes reveal the underlying ambitions of modern feminism. Trudeau and Obama implicitly state that all citizens should embark on a journey of thought reform, to change the ways in which people think about women. As such, the government is actively campaigning to change the way people think. Current year feminism isn’t about equal rights and opportunities, it’s about thought control.

Beliefs about men and women are unlikely to ever disappear, however. All humans and animals are divided in two groups, male and female. This division is the greatest difference between humans. Men have a lot more in common with other men across the world, compared to women of their own group, in terms of personality, emotionality, and appearance. I cannot fathom a foreseeable future in which universal sex differences do not result in beliefs about men and women.

An interesting example demonstrating the magnitude of the cultural reform is Trudeau’s speech style. In the french language, nouns have a gender, and occupations have therefore different names for men and women. When talking about both men and women, the masculine prevails, or is mentioned before if using both forms is absolutely necessary. Trudeau strategically alternates between orders and styles to challenge oppressive grammatical rules. He uses expressions such as women and menpoliticiennes et politiciens (politician), or uses feminine pronouns instead of the grammatically correct and neutral masculine form. Modern feminism hasn’t stopped at equal rights, and is now attempting to radically redefine the role of gender in society, up until grammatical rules.

Reshaping the concept of femininity

The political agenda to revolutionize the way we think about women assumes that group beliefs, or stereotypes, are inaccurate. As a result, governmental policies aim to re-program us to view women as the exact opposite of what they have historically been seen. They try to reshape women to embody the masculinity stereotype: independent, strong, determined, and tenacious.

The beliefs about women that political feminism is trying to deconstruct is the nurturing, caring, and delicate girl stereotype. Such an image of women can make them appear unfit for strenuous work. Thus, modern feminism attempts to promote an image of tough, independent, and ambitious businesswomen… which isn’t exactly accurate. Most women have priorities that they don’t want to sacrifice for minimal financial gain. This can be seen by women’s career choices, the high prevalence of women working part-time, or women interrupting their career for their children. Because they have the liberty to do so.

There is nothing inherently wrong with being caring, nurturing, or compassionate. But, modern feminists don’t want women to be seen as such. Reinforcing this perspective would be incompatible with the definition of equality that they have established, usually perfectly equalized financial statistics. Yet, most women don’t necessarily agree that their well-being is accurately operationalized by their financial outcomes, nor that they should be encouraged to pursue careers with little to no social contact for the sake of equality.

Conclusion

While most people in Western democracies support equal rights for men and women, much fewer label themselves feminists. Most of it is due to the fact that most are satisfied by the current equal rights, and that extensive governmental thought policing is unwarranted. There is no doubt that everyone acknowledges that certain issues disproportionately affect one sex. But the solutions to these issues do not reside in the current government supported feminist efforts to change how we think.

Most women judge that the equal rights they have had for generations grant them sufficient autonomy to prosper. They can make the balance between family, independence, and self-growth, without having an omnipresent government telling them that their sense of priority has been conspired away from an additional 23¢.

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Research finds that as a group, only men pay tax

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Transgenderism: an unsupported hypothesis, but with real risks

The prime minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau has once again shown his progressivism by promising to protect transgender people from hate speech with a new bill. This represents another step in the creation of gender identity as a legal, psychological, and moral reality. However, neurosciences were unable to substantiate the claim that transgender people are women in men’s bodies, and vice versa. The emergence of gender identity as reality justifies irreversible surgery and hormonal treatment, too often in pre-pubertal individuals, who are too young to take such major decisions. Even in older patients, hormonal replacement therapy can cause serious physical and emotional problems. In short, although the neurosciences have not been able to confirm the hypothesis that transgenders have a brain of the opposite sex, this assumption continues to legitimize laws and ambitious medical procedures.

(Essay published on Huffington Post in French)

Researchers have shown that transgender people have a brain that corresponds to their sex, and not their gender identity (1, 2, 3). Naturally, some have found a small difference, and it has encouraged some to believe that – wow – we discovered the area of gender identity! Sex was previously defined by biological criteria: the type of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and a sex-differentiated brain. Suddenly, according to some, sexual identity would be defined simply by only one of many regions of a tiny nucleus, on one side of the brain, showing a partial (fem-)masculinization, based on a group of eight transgenders. Even if we would find a persistent differences in the transgender brain, that wouldn’t mean that this difference would be linked to gender identity.

Since there are hundreds of measures that can be compared in the brain, it is not surprising that there is at least one that differs on average when comparing groups. In addition, the differences differed in each study! It would therefore be premature to conclude anything about one study. One of the articles mentioned cautions that it would be “very speculative” to say that the answer to gender identity lies in the small difference found. That the difference is causally linked to gender identity, assuming that such a thing exists and can be seen, is a speculation. It could be the area of any other trait unrelated to gender identity. For instance, MtF transgenders could have neuroticism in the female range. Or, the difference would mean nothing at all. Yet those who seek to justify their beliefs see it as an unambiguous sign that the transgender hypothesis holds. That does not mean we will never find anything, but for now, after decades of research, it was only established that the transgender brain corresponds to their sex, all the rest being pure speculation. What is not speculative, is the adverse effects of hormone treatments.

Transgender people report feeling like the other sex. This is intriguing. How can we know how others feel? As a man, I personally have no idea how other men feel. In addition, even if the researchers had found that transgenders had a brain of the opposite sex, it would still be speculative to say that they feel like the opposite sex. Men and women have gonads that produce sex hormones that influence cognition, mood, and even brain anatomy (4). I personally have no idea how it feels to live with such high and variable estrogen levels. Nobody knows how someone with a different personality or brain structure feels. It is impossible not to make a parallel with those who identify as another ethnicity or animal species. I have no doubt that transgender people believe themselves, but what is this belief based on?

Human beings have an incredible ability to feel anxiety, which leads them to investigate the possible reasons behind this feeling. However, people do not have such an ease to determine the cause of this distress (5). Transgender people have extremely high rates of psychiatric disorders (6) and other difficulties, like a troubled childhood (7). Most claim that this is because they are transgender, or stigmatized, but no one has established that being transgender corresponds to any observable reality. The treatment does not improve their life drastically either. You could say “Well why not, if it helps,” but that would be a lie. People with high levels of estrogen, such as girls with borderline personality disorder, have extremely volatile moods. So it’s not a brilliant idea to give estrogen to people that already suffer from psychiatric disorders. The attempted suicide rate after treatment is from 32% (8) to 41% (9). In another study, the suicide rate after treatment is 19 times higher than the rest of the population (10). According to a recent article published in the International Journal of Psychiatry, the most rigorous study showed that the condition of transgender worsens after treatment (11). Many studies that have found improvements have serious methodological problems, such as a study on Danish transgenders that lost 10% of its group due to death, at an average age of 53 years (12). Worrisome.

Throughout the ages, there were various attributions to explain anxiety. After the publication of the book Sybil in 1973, following the example of the protagonist, many women reported having developed multiple personalities. Many psychologists then used hypnosis to recover repressed memories of sexual abuse. The number of cases went from 200, before publication, to 1.5% of the US population in 2013, so a few millions. The average number of reported personalities rose from 2 to 13 within a decade. Similarly, people with anorexia are convinced that their distress is caused by their obesity, although they are by definition below an adequate weight. The explanation of their distress is not based on an accurate observation.

In short, historically, there have been a myriad of explanations for distress, which were not supported by objective data. People have very little insight to understand the origins of their behavior. They are also influenced by the suggestions of professionals. In a classic study, researchers modified photos and convinced the participants that they had been taken in the youth of the participants. Half of the participants spontaneously recounted memories about this photo, believing it themselves (13). So the fact that transgender people think of themselves as the opposite sex does not mean they are right.

There could also be other reasons for being transgender, apart from a misinterpreted anxiety. Some men feel sexual excitement when personalizing a woman (14) and thus transform into a woman. Even those who oppose the most to this theory concede that this is true in some cases (15). Feeling “good” when personifying a woman does not necessarily mean that one is a woman.

In conclusion, while it does not matter to me personally how people identify themselves, the phenomenon of legitimation of transgenderism leads to dangerous and simply false solutions. If an anorexic girl thinks she is obese, doctors do not prescribe her substances to make her lose weight. If the same girl claims to have multiple personalities, she is not given multiple passports. Before making transgenderism a legal reality, as suggested Justin Trudeau, or treating people with hormones that have many adverse effects, one is entitled to question the objectivity of the phenomenon. I wish the best to transgenders, but I also think about the thousands of people with psychiatric problems who will be encouraged to take hormones that present a danger to their physical and psychological health. After all, it is the role of science to test potentially dangerous assumptions.

References
1. Hoekzema, E., Schagen, S. E., Kreukels, B. P., Veltman, D. J., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Delemarre-van de Waal, H., & Bakker, J. (2015). Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 55, 59-71.
2. Savic, I., & Arver, S. (2011). Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals. Cerebral Cortex, 21(11), 2525-2533.
3. Luders, E., Sánchez, F. J., Gaser, C., Toga, A. W., Narr, K. L., Hamilton, L. S., & Vilain, E. (2009). Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism. Neuroimage, 46(4), 904-907.
4. Zubiaurre-Elorza, L., Junque, C., Gómez-Gil, E., & Guillamon, A. (2014). Effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on cortical thickness in transsexual individuals. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11(5), 1248-1261.
5. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513-523.
6. Heylens, G., Elaut, E., Kreukels, B. P., Paap, M. C., Cerwenka, S., Richter-Appelt, H.,… & De Cuypere, G. (2014). Psychiatric characteristics in transsexual individuals: multicentre study in four European countries. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(2), 151-156.
7. Veale, J. F., Clarke, D. E., & Lomax, T. C. (2010). Biological and psychosocial correlates of adult gender-variant identities: A review. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(4), 357-366.
8. Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., & Katz, M. (2006). Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. Journal of homosexuality, 51(3), 53-69.
9. Haas, A. P., Rodgers, P. L., & Herman, J. L. (2014). Suicide attempts among transgender and gender non-conforming adults. work, 50, 59.
10. Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, A. L., Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: cohort study in Sweden. PloS one, 6(2), e16885.
11. Dhejne, C., Van Vlerken, R., Heylens, G., & Arcelus, J. (2016). Mental health and gender dysphoria: A review of the literature. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(1), 44-57.
12. Simonsen, R. K., Giraldi, A., Kristensen, E., & Hald, G. M. (2016). Long-term follow-up of individuals undergoing sex reassignment surgery: psychiatric morbidity and mortality. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 70(4), 241-247.
13. Wade, K. A., Garry, M., Read, J. D., & Lindsay, D. S. (2002). A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(3), 597-603.
14. Blanchard, R. (1989). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 177(10), 616-623.
15. Moser, C. (2010). Blanchard’s autogynephilia theory : A critique. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(6), 790-809.

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Progressive Tax is Discrimination Against Men

Legally, discrimination does not only refer to overt and explicit discrimination, such as denying a position for the sole reason that the applicant is of a certain color, religion, or sex. Yes, that is illegal, but discrimination extends to all practices that disproportionately affect a certain group.

This is called adverse impact. Adverse impact is defined as “a substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decision which works to the disadvantage of members of a race, sex, or ethnic group.”

adv
It’s all about the proportion, regardless of the intent. 

That is why background checks and IQ tests are losing in popularity in hiring practices. A black person can sue an employer who used background checks, and didn’t hire them. Since a larger percentage of blacks have a criminal background, using background checks of criminal record is legally a form of discrimination towards black people. Employers need to be able to justify their use in court, if need be.

Since women have higher rates of absenteeism than men, documented as early as the 1800s up until now, a woman could sue her potential employer if he requires a flawless absenteeism record in the past.

The bottom line is this: men are over-represented in the highest end of the income distribution, and progressive tax rates affect them disproportionately.

wagg
(Arulampalam, Booth, Bryan, 2006)

Throughout the world, there is an increasing earnings gap at the top of the distribution. Imagine that the highest tax rate starts at the 8th quantile, a steady 20% to 30% more men than women  would be affected. In raw taxes, the gap might be gigantic, like in New-Zealand, where only men have a positive net fiscal contribution.

In essence, progressive tax rates disproportionately affect men, which constitutes the legal definition of discrimination through adverse impact.

Static tax amount: equality

Static tax rate: equity

Progressive tax: inequality

Progressive tax rates make very little ethical sense. But can we seriously expect a movement to protect the rights of rich men?

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A List of Research Articles Debunking the ”Economic” Argument of Mass-Immigration

Here’s a list of scientific articles to dispel the notion that muh economy is a valid argument for mass immigration in first world countries.

In short, there is NO evidence that mass-immigration is beneficial for the economy. Any argument in favor of it should not pertain to economics.

If the proponents of mass-immigration are motivated by altruism and the dissolution of Western culture, they should say so. Not spread lies about how our economy needs mass-immigration.

Here are the articles, with their abstracts.

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The Economic Effects of Immigration into the United Kingdom (Link to article)

This article is concerned with the economic effects of immigration. The emphasis is on Britain, but extensive material is also provided on other countries. Since 1997 a new British immigration policy has displaced previous policy aims, which were focused on minimizing settlement. Large-scale immigration is now seen as essential for Britain’s economic well-being, and measures have been introduced to increase inflows. The benefits claimed include fiscal advantages, increased prosperity, a ready supply of labor, and improvements to the age structure. Fears that large-scale immigration might damage the interests of unskilled workers are discounted. This article examines these claims. It concludes that the economic consequences of large-scale immigration are mostly minor, negative, or transient, that the interests of more vulnerable sections of the domestic population may well be damaged, and that any economic benefits are unlikely to bear comparison with immigration’s probable substantial and permanent demographic and environmental impact. Our claims are in line with those from other developed countries.

The conclusion we draw from this literature is that immigration of unskilled workers harms local workers who compete with them, possibly to a large extent.

This article has examined the impact of immigration on citizens of the United Kingdom. The claim that large-scale immigration will be of great economic benefit to them is false. Some will gain, but others will lose. With respect to the existing population of the UK and their descendants, the purely economic consequences of large-scale immigration could be negative or positive, but either way they will be small.

Immigrants are the only unequivocal economic beneficiaries of migration. There is no guarantee that anyone else will be, not even the sending countries from which the migrants come.

Explaining why the UK government is embarking on a policy with such potentially radical social and demographic consequences for so little and uncertain material benefit for its own citizens is beyond the scope of this article. All that can be shown here is that immigration on the current scale can only be justified on grounds other than its economic advantage to the citizens of the UK.

The Economic Benefits from Immigration (link to article)

Natives benefit from immigration mainly because of production complementarities between immigrant workers and other factors of production, and these benefits are larger when immigrants are sufficiently `different’ from the stock of native productive inputs. The available evidence suggests that the economic benefits from immigration for the United States are small, on the order of $6 billion and almost certainly less than $20 billion annually. These gains, however, could be increased considerably if the United States pursued an immigration policy which attracted a more skilled immigrant flow.

(To put it into context, $6 billion is 1/100th of the annual military spending in the United States, or 1/500th of the annual health spending. Basically, it’s nothing.)

The Impact of Immigration on the Social Security System (Link to article)

In 1992, the estimated deficit of the entire Social Security System attributable to the foreign born was $2.7 billion (i.e., payments the foreign born paid to and received from the system). Also in 1992, there was an estimated surplus of $19.0 billion for the native born population. During the 1993-2002 decade, the $2.7 billion annual deficit attributable to the current stock of immigrants is projected to grow by about one percent annually in present value terms, reaching $2.98 billion yearly in 2002. The ten-year deficit for the 1993-2002 decade would amount to nearly $30.0 billion in 1993 dollars. In policy terms, the addition of large numbers of less skilled foreign workers to the labor force (which will occur if there is no change in immigration law or enforcement policy) in the hope of bolstering the solvency of the Social Security System would in fact have the opposite effect.

Immigration, social security, and broader fiscal impacts (Link to article)

“the overall fiscal consequences of altering the volume of immigration would be quite small and should not be a consideration for policy”

Immigration and the Dutch Economy (Link to article)

Taking into account the fact that immigrants usually have families, their longterm fiscal impact turns out to be practically zero. Thus, immigration will not solve the budgetary problem. This calculation assumes that immigrants show the same economic performance as the average Dutch resident. If, however, their average employment rate and income were lower, as it is for the present non-Western immigrant population, immigration would aggravate rather than alleviate the financial burden of ageing. Only if immigrants outperform the average Dutch resident on the labour market, will their fiscal impact be clearly positive. However, assuming we would be able to attract these high performers, it would still take millions of them to make a substantial contribution to the required budgetary adjustment. Given these findings, immigration does not seem to be an effective way to alleviate the financial burden of ageing.

The Developed World’s Demographic Transition – The Roles of Capital Flows, Immigration, and Policy (Link to article)

Specifically, can the developed economies hope to be bailed out by either macroeconomic feedback effects of by increased migration? To address these questions, this paper develops and simulates a dynamic, intergeneration, and interregional demographic life-cycle model. The model has three regions the U.S. Japan which exchange goods and capital. The model features immigration, age-specific fertility, life span extension, life span uncertainty, bequests arising from incomplete annuitization, and intra-cohort heterogeneity. Other things equal, one would expect the aging of the developed economies to increase capital per worker as the number of suppliers of capital (the old) rises relative to the number of suppliers of labor (the young). But given the need to pay the elderly their benefits, other things are far from equal. According to our simulations, the tax hikes needed to finance benefits along the demographic transition path generate a major capital shortage that lowers real wages by 19 percent and raises real interest rates by over 400 basis points. Hence, far from mitigating the developed world’s fiscal problems, macroeconomic feedback effects make matters significantly worse. The simulations also show that increased immigration does very little to mitigate the fiscal stresses facing the developed world.

The Role of Immigration in Dealing with the Developed World’s Demographic Transition (Link to article)

This paper develops a three-region dynamic general-equilibrium life-cycle model to analyze general and skill-specific immigration policy in the U.S., Japan, and the E.U. Immigration is often offered as a solution to the remarkable demographic transition underway in the developed world. However, the precise net impact of expanded immigration is quite unclear. Additional immigrants pay taxes, but they also require public goods and become eligible for social security programs. Since taxes and transfer payments are collected and distributed on a progressive basis, high-skilled immigrants deliver a larger bang for the buck when it comes to paying net taxes. Our model confirms this point. Nonetheless, its findings are not pretty. It shows that a significant expansion of immigration, whether across all skill groups or among particular skill groups, will do remarkably little to alter the major capital shortage, tax hikes, and reductions in real wages that can be expected along the demographic transition.

Ageing, Immigration, and Fiscal Sustainability (Link to article)

This reduction explains why the reduced immigration has a positive effect on fiscal sustainability. The necessary adjustment in fiscal expenditures reduces to 1.4 percent of GDP – a reduction of 0.4 percentage points compared to the baseline scenario. Compared to the very large macroeconomic and demographic effects this improvement of fiscal sustainability is almost negligible.

Immigration and the public sector: Income effects for the native population in Sweden (Link to article)

The immigrants’ age structure and labour market situation are major determinants for their net contribution to the public sector. During the 50s, 60s and the 70s the immigrants’ net contributions gave positive income effects for the native Swedes. Nowadays there are negative income effects due to the deteriorating employment situation among the immigrants. The yearly positive or negative income effects have at most been 1–2% of the gross national product. A change in the immigrants’ employment rate by 1 percentage unit will change their yearly net contribution to the public sector by 0.1% of the gross national product.

Friends or strangers: the impact of immigrants on the U.S. economy (Link to article)

This book analyzes the immigrant’s role in the American economy….The essence of the empirical evidence summarized here is that because of changes in U.S. immigration policy and because of changing economic and political conditions both here and abroad, the United States is currently attracting relatively unskilled immigrants. For the most part, these immigrants have little chance of attaining economic parity with natives during their lifetimes. Although these immigrants do not greatly affect the earnings and employment opportunities of natives, they may have an even greater long-run economic impact because of their relatively high poverty rates and propensities for participation in the welfare system and because national income and tax revenues are substantially lower than they would have been if the United States had attracted a more skilled immigrant flow….The final section of the book….compares the foreign-born populations in the United States with the foreign-born populations in two other host countries (Australia and Canada) and documents how changes in policy and economic conditions alter the sorting of immigrant skills among host countries. Data are from official U.S. sources and censuses from Australia and Canada.

Fiscal Implications of Immigration—A Net Present Value Calculation (Link to article)

Focusing on the net fiscal effects, the gain from admitting immigrants is computed for a welfare state with large expenditures and a large tax burden (Sweden). Prices and behavior are held constant, which allows a detailed analysis of the effects of immigration. The present value of future tax revenues minus outlays is potentially large; USD 23,500 per young working-age immigrant, but an average new immigrant represents a net government loss of USD 20,500. The dominant factors are employment rates and age. For young working-age immigrants, the “break-even” participation rate for which the gain would be zero is 60%, well below the empirical rate for this group.

These results suggest that immigrants to a typical welfare state such as Sweden impose, on average, a substantial fiscal burden, and are less beneficial for public coffers than immigrants to the US.

The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK (Link to article)

We investigate the fiscal impact of immigration on the UK economy, with a focus on the period since 1995. Our findings indicate that, when considering the resident immigrant population in each year from 1995 to 2011, immigrants from the European Economic Area (EEA) have made a positive fiscal contribution, even during periods when the UK was running budget deficits, while Non-EEA immigrants, not dissimilar to natives, have made a negative contribution. For immigrants that arrived since 2000, contributions have been positive throughout, and particularly so for immigrants from EEA countries. Notable is the strong positive contribution made by immigrants from countries that joined the EU in 2004.

Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration (Link to article)

This paper uses 1990 Census data to study the effects of immigrant inflows on the labor market opportunities of natives and older immigrants. I divide new immigrants, older immigrants, and natives into distinct skill groups and focus on skill-group-specific outcomes within cities. An important first question is” whether inflows of new immigrants lead to outflows of natives or earlier immigrants in the same skill groups. Even after accounting for endogenous mobility decisions I find that inter-city migration flows of natives and older immigrants are largely” unaffected by new immigrant inflows. Inflows of new immigrants are associated with lower employment rates among natives and earlier immigrants, but with relatively small effects on the relative wage structure. The estimates imply that immigrant arrivals between 1985 and 1990 depressed the employment rate of low-skilled natives in major U.S. cities by 1-2 percentage points on average, and by substantially more in high-immigrant cities.

Protective or counter-productive? labour market institutions and the effect of immigration on eu natives (Link to article)

Reduced labour market flexibility may protect some native workers from immigrant competition but can increase negative effects on equilibrium employment. This motivates an analysis of immigration effects interacted with institutions. OLS estimates for European countries show small, mostly negative immigration effects while an IV strategy based on immigrants from former Yugoslavia generates larger though mostly insignificant negative estimates. Specifications allowing interactions between immigration and measures of labour and product market rigidity are consistent with the view that reduced flexibility increases negative immigration effects. The estimates typically imply more native job losses in countries with restrictive institutions, especially restricted product markets.

Since many immigrants work, their jobs may well have come at the expense of natives.

On a per-worker basis, this implies that 100 immigrants in the labour force cost about 83 native jobs, a large effect in levels.

Cited as: ”The effect is greatest in countries where local workers enjoy the most job protection. In such countries, employers cannot easily dismiss existing workers, but when filling new jobs they may choose immigrants because they are easier to fire than native workers. The authors conclude that more labor-market “flexibility” would reduce unemployment among local workers. If employers could easily dismiss local workers, they would have no reason to prefer immigrants. Thus, immigration leads either to unemployment or to greater job insecurity for local workers. In each case, workers lose and employers gain.”

The fiscal impact of immigration on the advanced economies (Link to article)

This paper is concerned with the advanced economies. It begins with a discussion of the demographic issues that have played such a large role in the debate on immigration. This is followed by a section on the main problems involved in estimating the fiscal impact of immigration and then a summary of the international evidence on this topic, mostly from Europe and America. Separate sections on the UK and on low-fertility countries follow. The main conclusions are as follows. Highly skilled migrants normally make a large fiscal contribution, whereas unskilled migrants are likely to impose a net cost on native taxpayers if they settle in the receiving country. However, even unskilled migrants may be net contributors if they eventually depart and make few claims on government expenditure while in the country. Most empirical studies find that the fiscal contribution of the immigrant population as a whole is quite small. The positive contribution of some migrants is largely or wholly offset by the negative contribution of others. This finding holds across a variety of countries and methodologies. Estimates of the net fiscal contribution of immigration normally lie within the range ±1 per cent of GDP. There are a few exceptions, but these refer to countries experiencing demographic collapse and they are based on unrealistic assumptions about the inter-generational allocation of future taxes and government expenditure. With more realistic assumptions, the overall fiscal benefit of immigration is quite small, even in these countries. These findings suggest that, in general, there is no strong fiscal case for or against sustained large-scale immigration. The desirability or otherwise of large-scale immigration should be decided on other grounds.

The labor market impact of immigration in Western Germany in the 1990s (Link to article)

In this article we estimate the wage and employment effects of recent immigration in Western Germany. Using administrative data for the period 1987–2001 and a labor-market equilibrium model, we find that the substantial immigration of the 1990s had very little adverse effects on native wages and on their employment levels. Instead, it had a sizeable adverse employment effect on previous immigrants as well as a small adverse effect on their wages. These asymmetric results are partly driven by a higher degree of substitution between old and new immigrants in the labor market and in part by the rigidity of wages in less than flexible labor markets. In a simple counter-factual experiment we show that in a world of perfect wage flexibility and no unemployment insurance the wage-bill loss of old immigrants would be much smaller.

Trends in Immigration and Economic Consequences (Link to article)

This paper reviews immigration trends and their economic impacts in a number of OECD countries. While migration systems present similarities across countries, institutional arrangements vary widely and impact on the size and composition of migration flows. Some of the main factors driving immigration are then briefly discussed. The paper also considers the economic, fiscal and social implications of immigration. The study suggests that immigration can confer small net gains to the host country. However, the benefits are not necessarily evenly distributed and some groups, in particular those whose labour is substitutable with immigrants may lose, calling for a smooth working of labour and product markets in OECD countries. The paper also claims that, while migration can partly offset slower growing or declining OECD populations, it cannot provide by itself a solution to the budgetary implications of ageing populations.

Will Future Immigration to Sweden Make it Easier to Finance the Welfare System? (Link to article)

Will future immigration to a country with a large public sector alleviate the increasing burden on the public welfare system due to an ageing population? The question is based on the experience that the age structure of immigrants differs from that of the native population. Fiscal impacts due to immigration depend mainly on the size, the age composition and the labour market integration of the additional population which arises because of immigration. A projection from Statistics Sweden about future immigration combined with the latest Long-Term Survey of the Swedish Economy has been used in this study. Calculations for Sweden up to the year 2050 show that the positive net contribution to the public sector from the additional population is rather small even with good integration into the labour market. The reason is that future immigration will increase the size of the population and thereby raise not only revenue from taxation but also public expenses. The fiscal impact is sensitive to the labour market integration of the additional population. The yearly positive/negative net contribution effect is less than 1% of GDP for most of the years. On the whole, the results are about the same even if we change the assumptions concerning the composition of future public revenues, the growth of public expenses, return migration, or the age-specific birth and death rates in the additional population. More considerable net fiscal effects would require a much higher and probably unrealistic level of future immigration.

The Fiscal Effects of the New Immigration in Switzerland (Link to article)

Our research investigates the long-term fiscal effects of the so-called new immigration of high-skilled workers in Switzerland for the first time. We develop a new approach, which combines the strengths of the two methods that are known in the literature. In line with the dynamic approach, we project the future composition of the foreign population in Switzerland, using the current propensities of immigrants with different characteristics to settle in Switzerland, and then link this structure based on the static approach with current tax, contribution, transfer and benefit flows of foreigners with the same characteristics. It is therefore a ceteris paribus comparison that shows what effect the new immigration in Switzerland has on the fiscal balance of foreigners in the long run due to changes in the composition of the immigrant flow and the varying tendencies of immigrants to settle in Switzerland under otherwise identical conditions. The results indicate that the fiscal incidence of the new immigration has a negative long-term trend. In doing so, this investigation provides evidence that the future improvement of the skill level of foreigners, which should influence the fiscal balance positively, is too weak to compensate the expected negative fiscal effects of the trend towards an aging society.

The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK 2014/15 (Link to article)

This paper extends the original research by Christian Dustmann and Tommaso Frattini (Dustmann and Frattini 2014) on the fiscal impact of immigration to the UK in individual years from 1995 to 2011 by applying the same methodological principles to the most recent year for which equivalent data is available – fiscal 2014/15.

The broad findings are that the overall fiscal effect in 2014/15 of the immigrant population in the UK was negative. This was so for post-2000 arrivals too using Dustmann and Frattini’s categorisation of sub-population groups, with negative contributions by immigrants from the EU A10 group of countries and countries outside the EEA outweighing a positive contribution by immigrants from the EU15/other EEA countries. This is the same result as obtained by Dustmann and Frattini in the final year of the period they observed.

The aging population and the size of the welfare state (Link to article)

An important consideration for our analytical result that the tax rate may be negatively related to the dependency ratio is the fact that in the model (and typically in reality), redistribution is financed by a tax on labor income rather than on capital income. If in our setup a capital income tax were available as a source of revenue to finance social security benefits, and this made retirees net contributors to the fiscal system rather than net beneficiaries, the tax rate would then be positively related to the dependency ratio (until the weight of capital owners in the population becomes large enough to shift the tax burden onto labor income).

(What this means is that states offering more welfare attract a lesser skilled migrant population, while pushing away skilled migrants)

The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market (Link to article)

Immigration is not evenly balanced across groups of workers that have the same education but differ in their work experience, and the nature of the supply imbalance changes over time. This paper develops a new approach for estimating the labor market impact of immigration by exploiting this variation in supply shifts across education-experience groups. I assume that similarly educated workers with different levels of experience participate in a national labor market and are not perfect substitutes. The analysis indicates that immigration lowers the wage of competing workers: a 10 percent increase in supply reduces wages by 3 to 4 percent.

Immigration and housing rents in American cities (Link to article)

Is there a local economic impact of immigration? Immigration pushes up rents and housing values in US destination cities. The positive association of rent growth and immigrant inflows is pervasive in time series for all metropolitan areas. I use instrumental variables based on a “shift-share” of national levels of immigration into metropolitan areas. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of a city’s population is associated with increases in average rents and housing values of about 1%. The results suggest an economic impact that is an order of magnitude bigger than that found in labor markets.

Help or hindrance? The economic implications of immigration for African Americans (Link to article)

This is a collection of 14 studies by various authors on the economic implication of immigration in the United States for African Americans. “The first group [of papers] deals either directly or by implication with the impact of immigration on the labor-market outcomes experienced by African Americans and other minorities…. Immigration can affect the economic circumstances of African Americans in a variety of ways that are not directly part of the employment relationship. These include pre-labor-market effects, such as those that occur through the accumulation of knowledge in formal education; effects on non-labor-market activities, such as housing choices and criminal activities; and impacts on workers’ choices of whether to enter employment or to become self-employed instead. Part two…provides economic analyses of these other activities…. Taken all together, the results of the various research projects indicate that recent immigration to the United States appears to have exerted small negative effects on the economic situations of African Americans.

Extras

Has Globalization Gone Too Far? (Link to article)

The process that has come to be called “globalization” is exposing a deep fault line between groups who have the skills and mobility to flourish in global markets and those who either don’t have these advantages or perceive the expansion of unregulated markets as inimical to social stability and deeply held norms. The result is severe tension between the market and social groups such as workers, pensioners, and environmentalists, with governments stuck in the middle. The most serious challenge for the world economy in the years ahead lies in making globalization compatible with domestic social and political stability—or to put it even more directly, in ensuring that international economic integration does not contribute to domestic social disintegration.

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Research finds that as a group, only men pay taxes

Legions of feminists will ferociously type smash the patriarchy! at their Internet rallies, calling out for the end of the male supremacy in all spheres of life. Yet, few of them acknowledge the fact that one of these spheres, the government (the institution granting them rights), is entirely supported by male taxpayers. Economically, women cost more to the state than they benefit. Put another way, the government (or men) is literally paying women to be alive. Strong independent women are only that way because the state is transferring money from men to them. Feminists are not seriously against being dependent on men, they are just against men having the full control over their money.

Let’s explore a fiscal research report in New Zealand.

The real gender gap: the tax gap

While the 77¢ for a dollar wage gap has been under the spotlight for the past years, the 200¢ for a dollar tax gap has, to my knowledge never been mentioned, at least not by our supreme feminist leaders Barack Obama and Justin Trudeau. A quick glimpse at the data reveals a massive difference in taxes paid by men and women. taxbycapitaThe first thing that comes to mind is that half of women might be at home raising kids. However, the workforce participation rate gap between men and women doesn’t seem to exceed 10% in either age group. (see figure 4 in source)

The second thing that may come to mind as a confounding factor is that women spend more for children in education and health. Nope. No support for that either. Men and women spend approximately the same amount in both education and health (see figure 10 and 11 of the source).

In nearly all age groups, women receive more tax than they give

With the exception of the age group between 45-59 (a 15 year span) years old, women cost more to the state than the tax they provide. In contrast, men generate more tax revenue than they cost between 23 and 65 (a 43 year span). In the brief period in which women generate more or as much tax money than they consume, men outscore them by at least 3 times. pergroup.jpg

By the end of her life, the average woman will have a negative fiscal impact of $150,000

By large, the cumulative tax money given to women outweighs the tax money generated by women. The short period of positive impact of women between 45 and 59 is countered by 65 other years in which their allocated tax expenditure is more than what they supply the state. cumul.jpg

Men, on the other hand, appear to have a positive cumulative net fiscal impact from approximately 40 until 80 years of age. For these particular taxes and public expenditures, the net fiscal incidence on men is approximately zero when cumulated over all ages. (p. 22)

Overall, the research suggests that male taxpayers are the only ones to ever have a positive contribution in taxes. Based on Figure 17, the closest that the average woman will come to having a positive fiscal incidence is when she is at minus $50,000 around 55 years of age. While feminists are demonizing men for benefiting from all liberties and rights they have constructed, they have oddly remained silent over the fact that anonymous male tax payers are paying women to exist. Read that sentence again.

The fact that feminists want a stronger government is not a coincidence. While historically, women had to choose a wealthy husband for resources, they can now stay single, be lesbians, marry a poor man, or use the sperm bank, and the state will still transfer male taxes to them. Interestingly, within 10 years of women’s suffrage, the government doubled their tax revenue and expenditure in the USA. The government has somehow become the new providing husband, by taking money from anonymous men who have no say about their money. While women are still strongly financially dependent on men, men are simply unable to use the money they make for their own interests.

These findings show just how simplistic the notion of privilege is. While men make more on average, it allows women to have access to education, health, and services. The patriarchy is pretty generous after all :^)

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Saying that there are only two genders is seriously ignorant

Let’s get this straight from the beginning: gender does not refer to your genitals. The term gender was popularized around the 80s by feminists to describe the social roles of men and women. Since then, the use of the term gender replaced the term sex in many uses, but does not designate the same reality.

With the steady growth of radical feminism in the past decades, the academic and governmental institutions have become perfectly aligned with the radical feminist dogma. They have ceased to use one’s genitals as a determinant of behavior, and have begun using one’s perception of their own social role instead. It’s ok to be confused. When referring to biological characteristics, gender is one of many misnomers in science. In scholarly publications, you might be asked by the editor to use the term gender even when referring to biological characteristics.

misnomer.png
That’s how misled science has become. Article from the renowned Science scientific journal.

So far, we established that gender refers to an individual’s perceived social role, not one’s genitals. Now, let’s explore why there are more than two genders.

First, by definition, gender is whatever you identify as. You are entirely free to identify yourself as anything. This is not to say that there are more than two sexes (obligatory mention that 1/2,000 people are born with an intersex condition [excluding transgenders, that’s not an intersex condition]). The statement that there are many genders does not mean that everyone isn’t either male or female.

If I was an authority in the social sciences, and decided that using the term natural identity would refer to the animal species I identify as, I would be entirely free to do so. You would be entirely wrong to convince me that there is only one natural identity. That wouldn’t change the reality that you are a biological human, whether you like it or not.

The second reason is that social roles are much more flexible and non-binary than your genitals. While gender roles do have biological correlates, traits and activities are not necessarily pertaining to one sex. Take a stereotypical masculine activity as an example, let’s say MMA fighting. While MMA might speculatively have biological correlates, such as testosterone, nature doesn’t make it a male activity, our social perception of the activity does. If a girl would do MMA occasionally, she would then adopt what we defined as a male social role. As such, said person might call herself gender fluid, because she alternates between male and female social roles.

gen
Wikipedia was apparently hacked by Russian spies (capped on 7/8/2016)

In the end, everytime you talk about someone’s gender, you refer to a person’s social role. Saying that there are only two genders would speak against the very definition of the word gender. It would also mean that all traits and activities pertain to one sex, and that everyone would either adopt a fully male/female pattern of behavior.

There are many genders.

But there are only two sexes.