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When Men Pay Taxes, Women Become Promiscuous.

Since the last century, the unprecedented growth in the budget of Western governments has radically changed gender dynamics. This expansion of the government was caused by women’s right to vote, and women’s subsequent voting patterns. The resulting multiplication of public services has progressively replaced men’s traditional role, which alleviated the complementarity and interdependence of men and women at the individual level. Yet, men are, as a group, still the sole providers of tax money. 

The transfer of dependence of women from a man, to the government, affected promiscuity values. Women’s sexual attitudes vary according to their perceived economic dependence, both at the cultural level, and at the individual level. Women’s promiscuity attitudes depends on what they can obtain in exchange for sex within a given environment.

In essence, when men support the government, women’s sexual attitudes loosen. 

WOMEN’S RIGHT TO VOTE & THE SIZE OF THE GOVERNMENT

Few people seem to acknowledge the fact that feminism is a political ideology that is primarily aimed at reshaping our legal system. The equality that feminism pursues is defined by equality of rights, which are granted by the government. As such, it has always been a doctrine directly tied to the government and its authority. 

The voting patterns of women since the suffrage movement have been identical throughout the Western world: women vote for bigger governments, that provide more entitlements. In the United States, 10 years after women started voting, the government had doubled in size (source). And since then, women have always voted for bigger, more powerful political platforms with more benefits (source).

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As you can see, WWI barely changed the government’s size. Women’s right to vote doubled it in 10 years.

 THE GOVERNMENT REDISTRIBUTES WEALTH TO WOMEN

A big government orchestrates the wealth redistribution from men to women, for two reasons. The first being that government services disproportionately benefit women. The second being that as a group, only men contribute to support the government. 

Indeed, women are the primary beneficiaries of governmental programs. Women use more education services (source). Women receive income support the most. Women have paid maternity leave (source). Women receive child support (source). Women receive alimony (source). Most public sector employees are women (source). Women have shelters (source). Women use health services more often (source). Women benefit from billions in feminist programs, campaigns, lobbies, and laws. 

And most importantly, these are services that women use (source)

While the government steadily increases in size due to women’s voting patterns, the government is ironically financed only by men. In a fiscal contribution study, researchers have found that women use so much services and work so little that they cost, on average, $150,000! On the other hand, men pay enough taxes to reimburse the services that they use (source). 

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That’s a gender gap that needs to be addressed.

Since as a group, only men pay taxes, and most services are used by women, the government serves as a re-distributor of men’s money into services and money for women.

The woman is free from the man, but as a group, women are still completely dependent on men. Men are still the providers of society, but instead of having full autonomy over their money, the government takes a large chunk of it to finance services that will mostly be used by women. 

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SEXUAL MARKETS

The sexual value of women fluctuates according to the basic market rules: supply and demand. That is why women’s sexual attitudes vary radically around the world, while men’s stay constant (source). Because their sexual value is determined by the local market. Women use their sexual value as a currency for social exchange (source). For instance, historically, men used to obtain a woman’s sexuality in exchange for being a lifelong provider. 

In a society where women are not entitled to financial entitlements, women are motivated to keep their sexual value at the highest to have a more valuable exchange currency. Men will be more willing to invest in a family when they have paternity certainty.

In a recent experiment, researchers from the Brunel University found correlations between women’s perceived financial dependence and her anti-promiscuity values (source). The more women felt like they were dependent financially, the more they endorsed anti-promiscuity values. This was also found at the state level. At the state level, median female income was strongly related to promiscuity morality. 

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We could extrapolate these results at the national level. It is common knowledge that the most feminist countries (e.g., Canada, Sweden), have the highest tax rates (53% and 57% respectively) in the entire world. 

GOVERNMENT SIZE & SEXUAL MARKETS

As the government grew in size, it assumed men’s traditional social role. Put another way, the government is now in charge of the responsibilities that men took to be valuable to women.

Bodyguard. Provider. The state can do it a thousands times better than any man. While the state obtains more resources from men, men lose opportunities to be a valuable partner. In the West, children are extremely dependent on the government, and completely independent of their father. In a child’s life, from neonatal health services, to daycare, to kindergarten, to primary school, to high school, to college, to university—men are completely useless, aside from the fact that they are the ones supporting these services. 

When men pay taxes, they become useless to both women and children, at least on the individual level. Men have no exchange currency that isn’t outbid by the government. This leads to the loosening of the sexual morals, because women have nothing to exchange their sexuality for. 

CONCLUSION

Women’s agency as a group has transfered their need for a provider from men, to the government. This has consequently alleviated any obligation to be valuable to men in order to obtain men’s resources… including the historical tradition of ensuring men paternity certainty. 

This is a bitter reminder that sex is never free. When money isn’t regulated, sex becomes regulated. When sex isn’t regulated, it’s because money is.  

This is why there are so many feminist, communist women. Deep down, they know that when money isn’t a viable currency, their body will be the only currency. 

What, you never noticed the link between communism and female promiscuity?

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Antifa girl, porn actress and communist activist. Unsurprisingly, college student too.

 

 

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Social Motivation as The Extreme Female Brain: Borderline, Dependent, and Histrionic Personality Disorders

This is a paper I wrote in my free time as a second year psychology
bachelor student. It wasn't published anywhere. 
Here's a PDF copy in APA style:
The Extreme Female Brain - Nicolas Kilsdonk-Gervais.

Cite as: Kilsdonk-Gervais, N. (2017). Social Motivation as The Extreme Female Brain: Borderline, Dependent, and Histrionic Personality Disorders. Unpublished manuscript. 

Abstract

Baron-Cohen’s Extreme Male Brain theory of autism has generated a novel perspective of psychological disorders: the depiction of clinical behavioral patterns as extreme expressions of normal sex differences. Consistent with this view, this review suggests that histrionic, borderline, and dependent personality disorders are the best candidates to represent the extreme female brain, as they are all characterized by excessive social or empathizing needs, and are related to feminization.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, extreme male brain theory

The Extreme Female Brain

From the moment species have evolved as sexual, females and males have gone through differential selection processes, in response to different roles involved in the continuation of the species (Buss & Schmitt, 1993). In humans, as in most species, males provide a group with resources vital to group functioning, while females bear and nurture children. As such, their respective physiology and psychology are designed to fulfill this purpose (Trivers, 1972). Women are highly dependent on others’ input and collaboration to get the necessary material to ensure the survival of both themselves and their children, since their evolutionary purpose is the upbringing of children. As evolutionary processes retain those who have a spontaneous drive to accomplish what is beneficial for them, this dependence on social ties must result in considerable gratification when fulfilled, and considerable distress when unfulfilled. As a result, socialization would entail greater gratification for women when successful, and greater distress when unsuccessful. The basic and ultimate need of women is to socialize, or empathize (Baron-Cohen, 2002), and they would then compete with each other on socialization processes. Different behavioral presentations represent different strategies to fulfill a social need, with differential outcomes and tactics. This review will suggest that some psychological disorders might be extreme forms of what defines a feminine psychology.

Theoretical Background

Baron-Cohen (2002) provided the first spectrum to account for psychological sex differences. The empathizing/systemizing theory suggests that males have a higher spontaneous drive to construct systems, and women have a higher drive to empathize. This model is the reasoning behind the Extreme Male Brain theory of autism (Baron-Cohen, 1997), based on a suggestion of Hans Asperger in 1944. People with autism spectrum disorders, theorized to be an extreme form of the male brain, have an unusually high drive to construct systems, and have an extremely low ability to understand others and create and maintain interpersonal relationships. They are considered to be mind-blind. On the other hand, the female brain would be characterized by a lesser drive to construct systems, but would be highly motivated to create and maintain social bonds. In this way, the extreme female brain would be extremely empathetic, but unstimulated by system construction. This model postulates that an extreme female brain would be system-blind, but extremely skilled at creating social bonds.

There are important shortcomings to Baron-Cohen’s theory. First, there is an underlying assumption that an extreme brain necessarily results in functional impairment, and in only one behavioral pattern. Some people with an extreme male brain score quite low on autistic symptoms (Auyeung et al., 2009). This introduces the second point; many other behavioral presentations are seen within those with a hyper-masculinized brain, such as individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and psychopathy (Hanoch, Gummerum, & Rolison, 2012). While they do not share the cognitive empathy impairments (Charman, Caroll, & Sturge, 2001; Meffert, Gazzola, den Boer, Bartels, & Keysers, 2013; Richell et al., 2003), they show the same low drive for socialization in itself, and often prefer status gains over well-functioning (Melnick & Hinshaw, 1996) and use instrumental interpersonal strategies respectively (APA, 2013). In this way, there is not a single extreme male brain presentation, and other presentations do not necessarily have cognitive empathy deficits, although there seems to be a generalized asocial tendency, or a low social motivation. Psychological theorists have previously suggested that autism is defined by a decreased social motivation (Chevallier, Kohls, Troiani, Brodkin, & Schultz, 2012). Another weakness of Baron-Cohen’s theory was uncovered when it was found that individuals with an extreme female brain (girls with a borderline diagnosis) had poor empathetic skills. Lastly, Baron-Cohen’s suggestion assumes that there is only one type of social drive. This no doubt led to the ambiguity that supposedly socially unmotivated autistic women are as social as non-autistic males (Head, McGillivray, & Stokes, 2014), and are even clingy inasmuch as they can be misdiagnosed with borderline personality disorder (Attwood, 2007). Even females who are thought to have a non-empathic brain have the clinginess that is here suggested to be a feminine trait. Consequently, it could be argued that systemizing and empathizing are needs rather than skills. In this way, the extreme female brain would be defined by an extreme social need, and may have multiple presentations, rooted in different strategies to fulfill a social dependency need.

Candidates of the Extreme Female Brain

Behavioral presentations that involve an excessive social need will be explored. Psychological disorders are useful in this regard, because clinical categorization classifies individuals into stable, pervasive, and delimited behavioral patterns, for which empirical data has been gathered extensively. In contrast, correlating femininity, life strategies, and pathology would be a colossal endeavor, based on statistical approximations. The prevalence of males in the described disorders does not mean that it is not a predominantly female behavior, as individuals act out on a need, but assuming that men and women live in roughly the same environment, more often this environment will be perceived as socially unstimulating.

Numerous personality disorders appear to be rooted in an excessive social motivation. Dependent personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and histrionic personality disorder are all characterized by an excessive sensitivity to the social world. All have historically been linked to women. Among clinically-naïve participants reading the diagnostic criteria, histrionic and dependent personality disorders were seen as female disorders (Rienzi & Scrams, 1991). Importantly, the epidemiology and definition of these disorders are biased towards women.

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is perhaps the most interesting candidate for the extreme female brain. It is defined in the DSM-5 as a “pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts” (APA, 2013, p. 663). People with borderline personality disorder typically make frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, their interpersonal relationships tend to be intense and characterized by an alternation between extremes of idealization and devaluation, they feel empty and have a self-image that depends on others, People with borderline personality disorder have high rates of compulsive buying (Maraz, Urbán, & Demetrovics, 2016), and use Facebook excessively (Delfour, Moreau, Laconi, Goutaudier, & Chabrol, 2015). Some theorists have suggested that people with borderline personality disorder are socially insatiable, in the sense that they expect extreme inclusion from others (De Panfilis, Riva, Preti, Cabrino, & Marchesi, 2015). Interestingly, borderline symptoms correlate positively with the number of piercings and tattoos (D’Ambrosio, Casillo, & Martini, 2014), and anecdotally, with hair dying frequency.

The hypothesis stating that females with borderline personality disorder represent an extreme form of female typical behavior has been informally suggested following Baron-Cohen’s Extreme Male Brain theory of autism. A recommendation for research was also expressed by Larson and colleagues, including Baron-Cohen (2015). Recently, the hypothesis was experimentally tested by Dinsdale, Mokkonen, and Crespi (2016). Using the results of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), they concluded that the extreme female brain may be what is known as borderline personality disorder and subclinical depression. Further evidence shows that borderline traits are linked to hormonal femininity, and are magnified by oral contraception use. DeSoto, Geary, Hoard, Sheldon, and Cooper (2003) found that borderline traits were linked to fluctuations in estrogen levels, by conducting three studies. First, borderline symptoms were most common in the period of the menstrual cycle in which estrogen is at its highest, and in women using oral contraceptives. Second, across a menstrual cycle, the presence of borderline traits was predicted by estrogen levels, even when a generalized increase in negative mood was statistically controlled for. In a sample of forty women, estrogen and progesterone influenced borderline traits (Eisenlohr-Moul, DeWall, Girdler, & Segerstrom, 2015). Lastly, for women with pre-existing borderline traits, use of oral contraceptive exacerbates the symptoms of the disorder. Additional indirect evidence for hormonal influence on borderline symptoms comes from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD occurs when estrogen levels are increasing before ovulation. The symptoms of PMDD are nearly identical to the borderline behavioral profile. The DSM-5 provides the following symptoms to illustrate PMDD:

markedly depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness, or self-deprecating thoughts; marked anxiety, tension, feelings of being “keyed up” or “on edge”; marked affective lability (e.g., feeling suddenly sad or tearful or experiencing increased sensitivity to rejection); persistent and marked anger or irritability or increased interpersonal conflicts (APA, 2013, p. 171).

Thus, fluctuating levels of estrogen play a role in borderline traits. Similarly, fluctuations in estrogen trigger depressive episodes in women (Payne, 2003), and women with PMDD tend to have high estradiol levels during the follicular phase (Redei & Freeman, 1995).

Borderline traits are also related to brain femininity. 2D:4D finger length ratios, the preferred biomarker for the evaluation of brain masculinity/femininity, is positively correlated to emotional instability (Lindová, Hrušková, Pivoňková, Kuběna, & Flegr, 2008). This means that the most feminized a brain is, the most emotionally unstable a person is. 2D:4D ratios correlate positively with neuroticism scores (Austin, Manning, McInroy, & Mathews, 2002; Fink, Manning, & Neave, 2004). Neuroticism is the trait of the Big Five on which men and women differ the most globally (Schmitt, Voracek, Realo, & Allik, 2008), and unsurprisingly, girls with borderline are acutely neurotic. 2D:4D ratios correlate with borderline characteristics: estrogen, neuroticism, and correlates negatively with autistic symptoms (which is the diametrical opposite of borderline interpersonal tendencies; extreme unresponsiveness to social stimuli; Putz, Gaulin, Sporter, & McBurney, 2004). 2D:4D ratios significantly predicted overall borderline traits, and the affective component of the borderline presentation more specifically (Evardone, Alexander, & Morey, 2008). In short, converging methods have provided evidence that borderline personality disorder is related to a pronounced femininity.

A large body of psychoanalytic literature suggests that borderline traits are caused by sexual, physical, or psychological abuse during childhood. In the academic literature, questioning participants on their abuse is an ongoing ethical debate. The cost-benefit analysis of asking about child abuse is often ignored, and researchers are often left with important research decisions that are ultimately based on individual beliefs on prevalence and effects of child abuse. The costs of not asking about abuse may actually be more significant than not asking (Becker-Blease & Freyd, 2006). Some have insisted for borderline personality to be relabeled as PTSD, as they can be confused for each other (McLean & Gallop, 2003). There is, however, a meaningful absence of confirmed reports in regards to the post-traumatic model. The hypothesis that borderline traits result from abuse is based on self-reports of people with the diagnosis, who are known to lie compulsively (Snyder, 1986), and to be exactly the type of people who would benefit from the nurturing and professional care that would ensue. Paris (1998) found that most victims of childhood trauma are resilient, personality is heritable, and traumatic childhood experiences do not consistently lead to psychopathology. Moreover, women are more resilient to childhood traumatic events than men (McGloin & Widom, 2001). Bierer and colleagues (2003) did not find childhood sexual abuse to be a predictor of borderline in adulthood. The only significant predictor was emotional abuse, but was only significant in men. Girls with borderline have been identified for being at risk for false rape accusations (O’Donohue & Bowers, 2006). Bailey and Schriver (1999) questioned experienced psychiatrists and found that “patients with borderline personality disorder were rated as especially likely to misinterpret or misremember social interactions, to lie manipulatively and convincingly, and to have voluntarily entered destructive sexual relationships, possibly even at young ages” (p. 45). The validity of the childhood trauma is at best anecdotical, and one should remain cautious towards any claim of victimization from people with borderline personality disorder. If anything, this literature could be interpreted as a strategy to evoke nurturance.

Borderline personality disorder is diagnosed three times more often in women. Yet, it was originally related to the concept of female hysteria, which was believed to originate in the womb. However, psychiatry as a whole does not seem to condemn major tweaks to psychiatric diagnostic criteria to equalize gender statistics, as is the case with ADHD and autism. It is then debatable if this ratio can be interpreted rationally. Regardless of the sex ratio, the diagnosis of men with borderline is based on the widespread faulty assumption that characteristics of one sex can be equally applicable to the other (Cahill, 2006). Although the female-to-male ratio is 3:1, there is a range of phenomena that apply mostly to women, for which borderline traits are the norm. The following section will explore that assertion.

The Ramifications of Borderline Personality Disorder

Regardless of the clinical ratio, borderline traits are often seen in other phenomena that are predominantly seen in women, which certainly undermines the true ratio. Furthermore, these phenomena often have little to no supporting objective evidence, and can be suspected that people with a borderline personality disorder diagnosis simply malinger nurturance. In terms of cost/benefit analysis, it is undeniable that many of these strategies represent opportunities to garner attention for little cost. That does not necessarily mean, however, that people with a borderline personality are aware of the motivations behind these actions.

Females with a borderline personality disorder diagnosis, like those with histrionic personality disorder, have been identified as being more prone to press false rape charges (O’Donohue & Bowers, 2006). False rape charges offer interesting opportunities to obtain nurturance from others, as they are often accepted at face value, at least in psychiatry. While people that were sexually abused are indistinguishable from controls on measures of depression, post-traumatic stress, fantasy proneness, and dissociation; patients with repressed memories recovered through psychoanalytic hypnosis scored higher (McNally, Clancy, Schacter, & Pitman, 2000). Hence, those with rape experiences recovered through flimflamming techniques often have borderline traits. Those with presumably legitimate memories of the abuse do not.

Factitious disorder is a condition that is typically seen in women. In a sample of 88 borderline patients, Links, Steiner, and Mitton (1989) found that 13% had factitious psychotic symptoms. Factitious disorders are usually thought to be motivated by regressive needs, fear of abandonment, need for caring, and nurturing. Feldman (cited by Adams, 2008) found borderline traits in patient with factitious symptoms: self-destructiveness, itinerancy, problems developing and maintaining relationships, hostility, and pseudologia fantastica. Goldstein (1998) found that borderline traits are commonly found in patients with factitious disorders. Undiagnosed borderline traits, such as insecure attachment, are the norm behind factitious presentations. Noyes and colleagues (2003) found that hypochondriasis is associated with insecure attachment that in adults gives rise to abnormal care-seeking behavior. Hypochondriacal and somatic symptoms were positively correlated with all of the insecure attachment styles, especially the fearful style. These same symptoms were positively correlated with self-reported interpersonal problems and negatively correlated with patient ratings of satisfaction with, and reassurance from, medical care. Hypochondriacal and somatic symptoms were also positively correlated with neuroticism. When under stress as adults, somatizers use physical complaints to elicit care (Stuart & Noyes, 1999). Poor self-esteem and poorly defined self-concepts are other characteristics common to both factitious disorders and borderline personality disorder (Hamilton & Janata, 1997). Phillips, Ward, and Ries (1983) found that their sample with factitious bereavement presented with depression and suicidal ideation secondary to reported multiple dramatic deaths for which there was no available verification, and many had histories of factitious physical symptoms, manipulative suicide attempts, substance abuse, and sociopathy. Factitious symptoms can better be understood as one form of dysfunctional care-eliciting behavior.

Pseudologia fantastica is often seen in people with borderline (Snyder, 1986). This pathological need for lying is used to garner attention and caring.

People with borderline are at great risk of self-harming, insofar that it is part of the diagnostic criteria. One of the motivation for self-harm is expressing distress to obtain nurturance (Linehan, 1993; Paris, 2005).

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) is a type of factitious disorder in which the mother secretly inflicts harm to her child to obtain medical care. This phenomenon is especially likely when the surroundings offer nurturance and praise in response to the brave mother of a sick child. Moreover, it is widely believed that perpetrator mothers use the child to pursue a relationship with charismatic and care providing physicians (Cramer, Gershberg, & Stern, 1971). Borderline features are often seen in MSBP, to the extent that MSBP has been suggested to be a subtype of borderline pathology (Nadelson, 1979). Ehlers and Plassmann (1994) found that half of their sample of 18 MSBP patients had borderline personality disorder, and that one third had narcissistic personality disorder, which has comorbidity rates of 32.2% with borderline (Grant et al., 2008). Adshead and Bluglass (2005) found that 82% of their sample of 67 MSBP mothers had insecure childhood attachments, and 60% had unresolved trauma or loss reactions. Gray and Bentovim (1996), based on a sample of 37 families, found that all the perpetrator mothers had suffered at least one of the following: privation, child abuse, psychiatric illness, or significant loss or bereavement, and that 40% had serious marital problems.

Conversion disorders are by definition any unfounded neurological symptom. Reported childhood abuse, neglect, dissociative symptoms, abuse, self-harm, and suicide attempts—which are typical of people with borderline—are frequently seen in those with conversion disorders (Şar, Akyüz, Kundakçı, Kızıltan, & Doğan, 2004).

As for many phenomena associated with borderline, multiple personalities (now dissociative identity disorder; DID) is highly controversial, as it has very weak and inconsistent support in terms of validity. Two thirds of DID cases also fit the borderline personality criteria (Horewitz & Braun, 1984). The association is so strong that Benner and Joscelyne (1984) have argued that it should be classified as a borderline personality disorder. The existence of “multiple personalities” is highly questionable (Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, & Merckelbach, 2008; Lynn, Lilienfeld, Merckelbach, Giesbrecht, & van der Kloet, 2012), as its core assumptions are violated (e.g., Huntjens, Verschuere, & McNally, 2012). There is no study to this date that used verified claims of trauma from a representative sample of the population. Hence, the legitimizing factor will be disregarded in favor of the effect, i.e., nurturing possibilities originating from a social need.

In short, borderline traits are found in a myriad of unexplained phenomena that appear to be strategies to obtain nurturance and contact with reassuring, father-like, providing figures. Moreover, some of these strategies are exclusively employed by women, which may undermine the 3:1 woman to man ratio. For instance, factitious disorder by proxy is conducted by the biological mother in 98% of cases. Factitious presentation is also a phenomenon that is predominantly seen in women.

Corrections to Baron-Cohen’s Empathize/Systemize Dichotomy

            Although people with borderline constitute a promising venue for understanding the extreme female brain, they do not represent exactly what would be expected from Baron-Cohen’s theory. Putting aside their psychopathic traits (Sprague, Javdani, Sadeh, Newman, & Verona, 2012), they do not have a superior empathy, capability of deciphering social cues, or an unusually efficient theory of mind (see Lazarus, Cheavens, Festa, & Rosenthal, 2014, for a review). Although they are hyper-mentalizing (Sharp et al., 2011), people with borderline have been shown to be deficient in emotion recognition (Baez et al., 2015) and theory of mind (Baez et al., 2015; Preißler, Dziobek, Ritter, Heekeren, & Roepke, 2010), although some have found no difference in cognitive empathy compared to controls (Dinsdale et al., 2016; Vaskinn et al., 2015). A revealing study by Franzen and colleagues (2011), provided a more comprehensive view of the psychology of people with borderline, that includes the motivational component of socialization that lacks in cognitive empathy tests. In a fairness game, controls and borderline patients were equally accurate at emotion recognition, but the latter was more dependent on others’ emotions to judge their own fairness. These results parallel the findings of Levine, Marziali, and Hood (1997). In short, people with borderline are more socially dependent than socially skilled. Again, the empathizing/systemizing dichotomy needs to be regarded as a need rather than a skill, and defined by their underlying motivation, as borderlines cannot be considered socially skilled, or empathetic in the broader sense of the word.

Genetics and Borderline Personality Disorder

Disorders linked to excessive masculinity are usually highly heritable. Namely, ADHD and autism spectrum disorders have repeatedly been linked to low 2D:4D ratios (e.g., Auyeung et al., 2012; de Bruin, Verheij, Wiegman, & Ferdinand, 2006). Both are highly heritable and co-heritable. Lichtenstein, Carlström, Råstam, Gillberg, and Anckarsäter (2010) found that genetic effects accounted for 80% of the variation in ASD and 79% in ADHD. In regards to co-heritability, among monozygotic twins of children with autism, the probability of having a diagnosis of ADHD was 44%, compared to 15% among dizygotic twins (Lichtenstein et al., 2010). Importantly, 2D:4D ratios in girls are 66% heritable (Paul, Kato, Cherkas, Andrew, & Spector, 2006). If borderline is truly linked to hyper-femininity, this pattern should also be observed. Evidence suggests that it is. Amad, Ramoz, Thomas, Jardri, and Gorwood (2014) estimate the heritability of borderline to be 40%. Like other conditions related to a pronounced sexual expression, borderline personality disorder is highly heritable.

Although the present framework suggests that borderline personality disorder is a good candidate of the extreme female brain, it needs to be addressed that one third of the diagnoses are made in men. However, many findings suggest that the true ratio might be more biased towards women than previously assumed. First, there are a vast range of other pathologies that share the neurotic presentation seen in borderline, that are exclusively seen in women. People with Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy are all women, and most have borderline features. Ratios which demonstrate similar base rates of borderline in men and women are often based on community samples (e.g., Grant et al., 2008), with no regard to confounding variables or referrals. Substance abuse, impulsivity, social anxiety, and sexual promiscuity are strongly linked to ADHD, but ADHD is not borderline (APA, 2013; Davids & Gastpar, 2005; Lampe et al., 2007; Nigg, Silk, Stavro, & Miller, 2005; Xenaki, & Pehlivanidis, 2015). Similarly, behaviors that are similar between men and women are often erroneously considered having the same motivation (Cahill, 2006). For instance, sexual promiscuity is the optimal evolutionary success for males of almost all species. In contrast, sexuality is the female resource (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004), and indiscriminate promiscuity is what women are evolutionarily wired to avoid. Promiscuous sexuality in females is linked to emotional distress (Ethier et al., 2006), physical unattractiveness (Walsh, 1993), borderline personality disorder (APA, 2013), susceptibility to sexual victimization (Perilloux, Duntley, & Buss, 2011), and attachment problems. As a thought-provoking example, depression is linked to females with many sexual partners, in contrast to men, in which it is unusually present in those with few partners (Weisfeld & Woodward, 2004). Hence, borderline personality might differ in motivation and expression, notably in the case of promiscuity. Most importantly, if both brain and hormonal femininity promote borderline traits, their occurrence in men requires clarification.

Histrionic Personality Disorder

The DSM-5 defines histrionic personality disorder as “a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts” (APA, 2013, p. 667). Symptoms include: being uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention, inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior, shallow expression of emotions, using physical appearance to draw attention to self, using an excessively impressionistic style of speech, self-dramatizing, theatricality, exaggerating expression of emotion, being suggestible, and considering relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.

There is not much to say about histrionics, as they are clearly incredibly successful social agents, as can be seen by their number of Facebook friends (Rosen, Whaling, Rab, Carrier, & Cheever, 2013), or their interpersonal style more broadly. They are always up to the latest fads, and familiar with everyone. As a symptom of autism is the unwillingness to share intentions and group movements (Tomasello, Carpenter, Call, Behne, & Moll, 2005), histrionic personality disorder is the opposite of this social behavior.

Histrionic personality disorder was argued to be the female phenotype of antisocial personality disorder by Cale and Lilienfeld (2002). Their empirical results were weak and inconsistent, but their methodology was questionable, as they tested histrionics on Newman’s (1987) response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy. This assumes that men and women have a common pathway to psychopathy, as psychopathy scales are tailored for men specifically. As our conspecifics are the key to evolutionary success or failure, elevated interpersonal power suggest a success at negotiating interpersonal power and influence. Fitness is achieved differently in men and women. As a striking example, men and women use different aggression strategies. Women use more relational aggression, such as excluding someone from a social network (see Wynn, Høiseth, & Pettersen, 2012 for an overview of psychopathy in women). Indeed, histrionic women have been identified as being at risk of making false rape charges (O’Donohue & Bowers, 2006). Kanin (1994) identified three main motivations behind false accusations: obtaining sympathy and attention, getting revenge, and providing an alibi. Likewise, McNamara, McDonald, and Lawrence (2012) found that 50% of their sample was motivated by attention-seeking and sympathy. It could be argued to be a form of fraud, for which male psychopaths are known for. Psychopathy in women might be achieved by interpersonal skill and power, resulting in lowered social fear, as opposed to psychopathic men, who might express psychopathic traits due to a lack of physical fear (Hosker-Field, Gauthier, & Book, 2016). Differential fear mechanisms would be based on differential evolutionary competitive aggressive patterns, namely indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression for women (Archer & Coyne, 2005), and physical aggression for men (e.g., Archer, 2004). Since intra-sexual competitive encounters usually involve a form of competition that establishes the fittest individual based on an evolutionarily adaptive trait, it is not surprising that men and women differ in aggression patterns. While a woman attempts to rob another woman from her social bonds, a man attempts to show himself as the most capable to generate and protect resources with physical capability.

Substantial support for the hyper-femininity perspective of histrionic personality disorder came from the measurement of finger length ratios of female psychopaths (Blanchard & Lyons, 2010). The results gave a statistically significant positive correlation of 0.45 between 2D:4D ratios and psychopathy in women.

Histrionic personality disorder is mostly diagnosed in women, although the exact sex ratio is unknown. Researchers and the DSM-5 are generally unwilling to divulgate the sex ratio, as it is repeatedly quoted that “the sex ratio is not significantly different than the sex ratio of females within the respective clinical setting” (APA, 2013, p. 668). There is a range of diagnostic features that do not really apply to men, such as “consistently use physical appearance to draw attention to themselves”, which is quite revealing as histrionic women are the only subgroup of “disordered” women linked to physical attractiveness (Bornstein, 1999). This higher physical attractiveness is not seen in men, so it remains to be clarified how unattractive men use their physical appearance to draw attention (excluding paraphilias, such as exhibitionism). “[Histrionics] may “fish for compliments” regarding appearance and be easily and excessively upset by a critical comment about how they look or by a photograph that they regard as unflattering” (APA, 2013, p. 668). Most social media users might confirm that this behavior is seldom seen in men, and applies to more than the 2–3% prevalence that the DSM-5 suggests. The DSM-5 expresses that “[histrionics] often act out a role (e.g., “victim” or “princess”)” (APA, 2013, p. 668), which, once again, does not seem to apply to non-paraphilic male behavior. The existence of histrionic personality disorder stems from hysteria, which was linked to women, the female genitalia, and femininity since Ancient Egypt. In short, it seems like unwillingness to divulge sex ratios in clinical psychology stems from a general unwillingness to accept the reality of sex differences (Cahill, 2006). Clinically naïve participants associate histrionic personality to women five times more than to men (Rienzi & Scrams, 1991).

Histrionic personality disorder is highly linked to borderline personality disorder. Among histrionic females, 36% are also borderline. Among those with borderline, 10.3% are histrionic (Grant et al., 2008).

Dependent Personality Disorder

Dependent personality disorder also represents an interesting candidate for a behavioral expression of the extreme female brain. If the female brain is more responsive, gratified, and motivated to pursue and maintain social bonds, it might be expressed as excessive investment and dependence in social relationships on a small scale, without a severely neurotic or theatrical component. Dependent personality is defined by the DSM-5 as “a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts”. Symptoms include having needing others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life, having difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval, having difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own, going to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone, and urgently seeking another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends (APA, 2013, p. 675).

While it seems intuitive to nominate disorders with an extremely neurotic presentation as the extreme female brain, girls with borderline who ameliorate their outcome most likely still attach importance to interpersonal bonds. The presentation of borderline without its acute neurotic features would resemble dependent personality disorder—frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment and a pattern of intense relationships. Perhaps dependent women share the brain femininity with those who have borderline personality disorder, without the behavioral tendencies originating from elevated estrogen levels. Unfortunately, very little research is done on dependent personality disorder.

Like borderline, dependent personality is highly heritable. Heritability rates are estimated to be from 55% to 72% (Gjerde et al., 2012). People with dependent personality disorder have a non-dominant, submissive interpersonal style, like those with borderline (Russell, Moskowitz, Zuroff, Sookman, & Paris, 2007). Kaplan (1983) argued that dependent personality disorder is nothing more than a woman conforming to society’s idea of a woman, and that behaving in a feminine stereotyped manner alone is sufficient to get a DSM-III diagnosis. Oddly the author remains silent over the fact that this is also true for males, but combined with a neurological justification and a psychoactive solution. Klonsky, Jane, Turkheimer, and Oltmanns (2002) found that in a sample of 665 college students, dependent personality traits were related to higher femininity and lower masculinity in men and women. As indicated by their absent initiative and risk-taking, people with dependent personality disorder have an external locus of control, which is negatively correlated to masculinity (Richards, Stewart-Williams, & Reed, 2015). Their appeasing interpersonal style is sacrificing autonomy to maintain social bonds. For instance, avoiding negotiating, arguing, or discussing. It is an extreme form of the principle of least interest, that explains that people hold more power in relationships in which they have the least interest (Sprecher, Schmeeckle, & Felmlee, 2006). In essence, dependent personality disorder is a life strategy motivated by strong social dependence needs.

Bridging Candidates of the Extreme Female Brain as Evolutionary Strategies

Individuals with the covered personality disorders represent a critical and revealing insight into evolutionary-based motivation. Mating strategies differ greatly between men and women (Schmitt, 2015), and are rarely placed in a context-dependent framework. Different mating strategies co-vary with behavioral (or clinical) profiles, which might reveal underlying motivations. It is known that women have a social need. It is also known that women have a need to regulate their sexual value (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004). Both can be seen as intertwined variables to manage for an optimal evolutionary success.

Dependent, borderline, and histrionic personality disorders are three disorders primarily defined by an interpersonal component. Dependent and histrionic personality disorders have been argued to be strongly linked to dependent personality disorder, as both are inflexible, exaggerated dependency needs (Bornstein & Malka, 2009), and the borderline personality certainly fits under this description as well. Dependent and histrionic personality disorders are believed to have emerged from hysterical personality in the DSM-II (Disney, 2013).

A major distinguishing factor between them is their relative success at fulfilling their social need. While all three involve a certain social dependency, it differs on the scale and type of dependence. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the female brain is highly motivated to be active in the social world. Reproductive success in women does not solely depend on their social success. Having the greatest investment in offspring, women need to carefully choose their sexual partners (Schmitt, 2015). As a matter of fact, sexual promiscuity in females is linked to high-scores on measures of depression (Grello, Welsh, & Harper, 2006; Weisfeld & Woodward, 2004), emotional distress (Ethier et al., 2006), and psychological distress (Fielder & Carey, 2010; Glenn & Marquardt, 2001), which is the opposite pattern than that of men’s. The sexual tendencies of the three personality disorders covered reveals different mating selection and retention strategies.

Borderline personality disorder is a neurotic form of dependent personality disorder. They crave their partner’s commitment and sometimes engage in frantic and irrational acts to avoid abandonment, such as accusing others of rape and violence, or having children for mate-retention purposes. They are extremely dependent on a single relationship, until this relationship suddenly loses all interest and another one is more inviting. People with borderline are always dependent on someone, but the target of this dependency is rapidly changing. Thus, they sacrifice sexual value to retain social relationships, as they are usually quite sexually promiscuous (Hurlbert, Apt, & White, 1992; Mangassarian, Sumner, & O’Callaghan, 2015). In essence, they obtain masculine investment at an extremely high cost, which also depletes extremely fast. They are usually overweight (Sansone, Wiederman, & Monteith, 2001). Borderline scores correlate 0.44 with body mass index. Similar to histrionics, they use sexuality to obtain men’s attention, but “engage” in the sex that histrionics tease with. Women with borderline have more sexual assertiveness and erotophilic attitudes, meaning that they are more willing to give the sex to obtain what they want (Hurlbert et al., 1992). As such, they spend the sexual currency (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004) that they possess to obtain male investment, which histrionics are known to withhold.

Histrionics are extremely dependent on the social world, but unlike the other two personality profiles mentioned, they are dependent on a large number of people. In essence, histrionics correspond more or less of what a typical feminine woman would dream to embody, if the feminine psychology was indeed defined by a drive for socialization. Physical attractiveness, committed and obsessive providing partner, and an extremely large social circle. In regards to sexual attitudes, histrionic women have lower sexual assertiveness and have erotophobic attitudes, demonstrating a lower willingness to have sex per se, but show more sexual preoccupation, lower sexual desire, more marital dissatisfaction, more sexual boredom, more orgasmic dysfunction, higher sexual self-esteem, and greater likelihood to have an extramarital affair (Apt & Hurlbert, 1994). This suggests that they have more sexual potential, and apply it discriminately. They are more likely to cheat, which suggests that monogamous relationships limit their perceived potential gains. People with histrionic personality disorder are more physically attractive than other personality disorders or no personality disorders (Bornstein, 1999). If achievable and maintainable, a histrionic presentation is the most evolutionarily attractive, as it entails ultra-socialization, and also selective—but high in value—sexuality. Histrionics are also known to tease men by appearing sexually interested, but are also known to refuse actual contact (APA, 2013). As such, they successfully bargain interactions with men without using their sexual currency. Teasing can be conceptualized as an unwillingness to reciprocate a man’s investment. Their life strategy seems effective from an evolutionary standpoint, as the bored histrionic vs. obsessive husband was once the most encountered case in marital therapists (Martin & Waldo Bird, 1959). Although it seems like an adaptive strategy, it also entails great social risks. Being loud and sexually provocative provides many opportunities for “bitching”. As in psychopathy in men, it could be argued that histrionics play the evolutionary game with the highest stakes.

Dependent personality disorder is a small scale dependence pattern, usually on a central romantic figure that defines their lifestyle, tastes, activities, and values. In short, they are defined by a single relationship in which they are deeply invested. As dependent girls usually have few to no friendships, they can use their sexual value to satisfy this social urge in a romantic relationship. Their social life is usually limited to one idealized partner. People with a dependent personality seek relationships rapidly after one has ended, and become “indiscriminately attached to another individual” (APA, 2013, p. 676). This involves collateral damage, however, as they exert little discrimination in their mate choice. In this way, superordinate goals (quality of the genetic material) are sacrificed for basic socializing needs. In sum, both social success and sexual success are low in people with dependent personality disorder, as they have few social bonds, and an indiscriminate mating pattern. However, it offers stability.

Conclusion

It seems accurate that the extreme female brain is defined by social hyper-sensitivity, as the three mentioned disorders, characterized by an excessive social motivation, are all more prevalent in women. All of the presented disorders are linked to excessive fear of abandonment and reassurance (APA, 2013). This parallels the finding that 2D:4D ratios are positively correlated to an external locus of control, i.e., the perception of effectively affecting outcomes (Richards et al., 2015). It suggests that the female brain is expressed by an accentuated social dependency, relative to the male brain.

This essay investigated the concept of an extreme female brain, originally based on Baron-Cohen’s Extreme Male Brain (1997, 2002, 2009) and Theory of Mind (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985) theories of autism. The empathizing/systemizing theory proposes that the extreme female brain would be characterized by superior mentalizing, but deficient systemizing. Hence, the current review has argued that borderline, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders are the best candidates to portray the extreme female brain, as they are all defined by a strong social, empathizing need, and their epidemiology is strongly biased towards women. Their success at being a social agent varies greatly. Whereas histrionics are clearly highly functioning socially, the same cannot be said about borderlines, who have average (Dinsdale et al., 2016) to poor social skills (Baez et al., 2015; Bouchard, Lussier, Sabourin, & Villeneuve, 2009; Franzen et al., 2011; Levine et al., 1997), although they are indeed hyper-mentalizing (Sharp et al., 2011). This reiterates the relevance of the position that the empathizing/systemizing drives are needs that do not necessarily translate into superior skills. In aggregate, the hypothesis that the extreme female brain is characterized by a strong empathizing drive is more than plausible, and gaining materiality.

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Hillary wants to end Alzheimer’s within 9 years: completely unrealistic

On her campaign website, Hillary Clinton commits to ‘’prevent, effectively treat, and make a cure possible for Alzheimer’s disease by 2025.’’ Additionally, she promises to invest 2$ billion per year in research. While some Alzheimer’s advocacy organizations, such as UsAgainstAlzheimer’s, have supported her plan, Hillary’s promise is probably the most unrealistic electoral promise made in US history.

Given the state of the neuroscientific research, ‘’curing’’ Alzheimer’s is as likely to occur within 9 years as eliminating hunger, regenerating limbs with stem cells, or pacifying the Middle East. In other words, there is absolutely no chance that Hillary will fulfill her promise to eliminate Alzheimer’s during her mandate, if she is elected. Here’s why.

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The electoral promise of Hillary, visible on her website. 

No psychological disorder has ever had an established biological marker

Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed based on behavior, not with brain imaging or any other physical test. While some brain differences between clinical and control groups can be used in support, no psychiatric disorder can be identified with brain scans. Psychiatrists are unable to diagnose either ADHD, autism, or even schizophrenia with brain imaging. Psychological disorders are behavioral categories, not biological ones. After decades of research, no psychiatric disorder has been proven to be caused by a reliable biomarker. None. Just detecting Alzheimer’s with brain scans would be ambitious given the short time lapse given by Hillary.

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Mental illness is diagnosed exclusively by behavioral means. Psychological disorders are very diverse and vague—we may never even find biomarkers for many of them. 

Promising a cure would necessitate that we find a reliable cause for Alzheimer’s, which has never been done for any disorder, after decades of brain imaging research. Finding a biomarker would be the next logical step to cure Alzheimer’s, and would already be ambitious by 2025, but Hillary promised to solve this issue, and all subsequent problems within this delay.

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Hillary Clinton is probably unaware of the significance of her promises. 

Alzheimer’s has no biological marker either

Some promising trails have been investigated. Researchers have found that people with Alzheimer’s have amyloid deposits in the brain. The only problem is that many people have amyloid plaques but no Alzheimer’s symptoms. This is similar to brain imaging in general, and it has led many people to overestimate the significance of neuroimaging findings. In the specific case of Alzheimer’s, brain imaging is used to rule out other causes, if a brain abnormality is found.

Two popular competing hypotheses, the Tau hypothesis and the Amyloid hypothesis, have been thoroughly tested since 1991. Yet, no clear conclusion was reached, despite all our efforts. The research is ongoing to this day, and nothings leads us to believe that a quick breakthrough will soon occur.

brain
Brain imaging is a very young science, and it is unlikely that all limitations will magically untangle in the next 9 years. 

To ‘’cure’’ a mental illness is something that has never been done, and we are not sure of ever achieving that, given the complexity of the mind and brain. We have slowed down the progress of certain diseases, we have given medication to minimize ADHD symptoms, we have created anti-psychotics, but we haven’t come close to cure or prevent any form of mental illness. We haven’t even succeeded in finding a biological marker that can reliably prove/disprove the presence of any psychological disorder.

To cure Alzheimer’s, we would have to find a biological marker, understand it enough to prevent or invert it, and make the treatment widely available. We have been busy trying to fulfill the first step for decades, without success. Completely eradicating the disease, and in such short delays, would be nothing short of a miracle in the slow and chaotic process of neuroscience.

Hillary should only promise to invest $2 billion, without any irrationally ambitious end goals. This is pure manipulation of suggestible masses, especially vulnerable people that have a loved one with Alzheimer’s.

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9 Lame Hobbies Black People Love (For Some Reason)

Disclaimer: this article is in response to THIS ARTICLE from Cracked that went viral. I am making a similar post to show the hypocrisy of an increasingly tolerated racism against white people. If you are offended, you can message the admin of Cracked and I will take my post down as soon as they take down theirs.

I am not racist, but black people have certain hobbies that make them easily distinguishable from other races. These hobbies do not stand out as being of relatively good taste. From extremely dangerous to outright illegal, the hobbies that are known to emerge from the African-American community raise questions about human nature. Black people are known for stupid hobbies like…

1. Not getting over slaveryslavery

More than 150 years after the abolition of slavery, blacks are constantly asking for reparations. While thousands of white people have died in war to grant black people constitutional rights, it seems like blacks are in a permanent state of resentment towards white people.

Black people will never mention that there were black slave owners, and even Native American slave owners. Quite the opposite: they will claim that Americans stole land from the Native Americans. They will also omit to mention that it was Africans who sold slaves to whites, sometimes for just a handful of corn. Likewise, they will not mention that blacks genocided each other in Rwanda… or that a century after slavery, dozens of millions of white people died at the hands of each other. No, only blacks live with daily consequences of historical events.

Get over it. 

2. Twerkingtwerking.jpg

Of all the increasingly slutty dancing rituals of millennials, twerking is by far the worst. The experts remain unsure what twerking actually is, but it is believed to englobe all types of dancing that would disappoint a girl’s father. Originating from the streets of New Orleans, there is wide consensus from the non-black population that it should have stayed there.

3. Knocking out pedestriansknockout.jpg

What better to denote the historical achievements of the black community than to mention the famous Knockout Game? The Knockout Game is the cowardly practice of punching an innocent random pedestrian, with the hope of knocking them out with a single punch.

While the mainstrea media doesn’t want to acknowledge this trend due to its racial implications, some have called out for black leaders to come out and talk about this racially motivated violence.

4. Blocking streets for protestingblmPreventing law abiding citizens to go back home after work is the best way to make sure no one will support you. Why do Black Lives Matter activists keep doing it? Probably because it fulfills their sense of entitlement and antisocial tendencies. But that’s until an angry person decides to run over those who disturb public peace.

5. Resisting arrest

resist

While Black Lives Matter activists will tell you that Mike Brown was kneeling, had his hands up and whispered ”Please don’t shoot” while shedding a tear, it’s not how it happened. It reveals un underlying problem in urban communities. Blacks resist arrest twice more than whites. Usually, they resist aggressively nlong before they get arrested, for example while being asked routine questions.

6. Finding new ways to ruin the English language

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Black people have their own way to talk, which sounds like tribal gibberish to me. Few resist, but are subsequently accused of ”talking white” by brothers and sisters.

7. Looting

looting

The only thing more upsetting than black people looting Foot Locker stores as  rightful reparations for slavery is that these are usually covered by the media as ”peaceful protests” following the ”unjust” shooting of an armed criminal threatening the police with a loaded firearm.

Black people looting is nothing new, it’s been documented for over 30 years, usually following an acquittal of white police officers. Or Hurricane Katrina. Whatever excuse you can find to steal a pair of Jordans.

By the way, every pair of Jordans being stolen is money taken from another black man.

8. Sagging

sagging

Sagging is very impractical while trying to run away from the police… or trying to do anything else. Rumor says this trend began in prison to signal sexual availability to other males…

9. Being crappy customers

pawn.jpg

There’s a stereotype saying that black people don’t tip. A survey of 1,000 restaurant servers found that one third believed blacks to be poor tippers. Not only that but they are apparently using too many napkins in restaurants.

That’s not the only thing. Remember the TV show Hardcore Pawn that’s entirely dedicated to black people from Detroit being aggressive customers? Must watch.

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Research finds that women, but not men, dislike female bosses.

You have probably heard the stereotype that men don’t like having a female boss. It is also often cited as one of the primary reasons preventing women from reaching higher positions, because of their fear of social disapproval. Often, this stereotype is expressed in the form of accusations, such as by saying that men’s masculinity is so fragile that they are afraid of strong womyn.

“Even men who support gender equality may see these advances as a threat to their masculinity, whether they consciously acknowledge it or not”.

Ekaterina Netchaeva, social “scientist”

Yet, when tested empirically, the hypothesis that men dislike having female bosses did not hold. On the contrary, only women were shown to have more negative work experiences under a female boss. This is far from being the first time that men are blamed for women’s aggression towards each other. Remember the Twitter study that showed that women slut-shamed each other just as much as men did? Or that time when the patriarchy was blamed for domestic violence in lesbian relationships?

Using two independent datasets of a total of more than 11,000 observations, the researchers investigated the role of the boss’ sex on job satisfaction. The analysis also included many other variables, such as the age and race of the respondent, and a myriad of characteristics of the boss in question.

In both data sets and across all variables, there was a persistent negative relationship between women’s work satisfaction and having a female boss. On the other hand, men did not show any difference in job satisfaction when having a male or female boss.

Remarkably, the authors statistically controlled for stereotypical perception of gender roles in employees. So “internalized misogyny” plays no role here.

The authors conclude with the following quote:

“From a normative perspective, our results call into question why employers would hire women for supervisory roles if they are no more productive than men but reduce the job satisfaction of female subordinates.”

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29 Generic Black Guy Names And What They Say About His Personality

This is in response to the racist article from Thought Catalog with the same title. If you’re offended, I’ll take it down. Right after Thought Catalog does. I am doing this to bring awareness of how racism against whites has become mainstream.

  1. D’Antre: shoots his pistol sideways.
  2. Latrell: pre-ordered NBA 2K17.
  3. Devon’tae: Calls Donald Trump a racist, can’t back it up with any concrete example.
  4. Ny-Quon: blames slavery for not finishing high school.
  5. Noah: can be found on Facebook, Twitter, and adoptuskids.org.
  6. Antwain: has a fake Rolex, with the chrome layer peeling off.
  7. Malik: has the latest top-of-the-line basketball shoes, but 3 sizes too large.
  8. La Mont’e: sends friend requests to white girls.
  9. Jamal: wears fake brand Beats by Dre headphones.
  10. Daquan: is still wearing Kanye West’s shutter shade sunglasses.
  11. Demetrius: has one source of income, his upcoming mixtape.
  12. Tyrone: threatens to unleash his pitbull on you, complains about negative pitbull stereotypes.
  13. Dre’Quoine: stole your bike.
  14. DeShaun: thinks Egyptians were black.
  15. Dea’Quan: removed his car’s speakers, left only the subwoofer.
  16. Darnell: shot three rival gang members last year, attends every Black Lives Matter protest.
  17. Ke’Darius: doesn’t remove his hat’s stickers.
  18. Daeshon: calls white people whitey.
  19. Kapone: has a tear drop tattoed next to his eye.
  20. Moreece: shouts “World Stah World Stah” whenever two people argue.
  21. Stefphon: gets very salty when losing at FIFA.
  22. Tahjae: his haircut has stripes.
  23. Moses: is still wearing Phat Farm apparel.
  24. Trayvon: provides the whole neighborhood with rap music.
  25. Jontrell: constantly says “do you know what I mean”, but using only one syllable.
  26. Tyrieq: wants to become a hip hop star, if that fails, he’ll play professional basketball.
  27. Keonte: doesn’t consider “it’s just a praaaaank” to be a sufficient excuse.
  28. Shaquon: wears white mid-calf socks under basketball shorts.
  29. Jermaine: sits on porch.

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L’Ouest et ses armes futuristes, dépassées face à l’effort de guerre mondial islamique

Les nations en conflit semblent avoir la fâcheuse habitude de se préparer pour une guerre à l’image de leur dernière. En 1940, les français creusaient des tranchées pour se défendre comme ils le faisaient lors de la grande guerre. Cependant, cette fois, les allemands surmontaient leurs défenses en blindés, les bombardaient avec des avions, et déployaient des parachutistes en arrière de leurs lignes.

Après les conflits armés, les nations identifient les facteurs qui ont mené à l’escalade du combat armé. Suite à la deuxième guerre mondiale, le monde occidental a identifié le fort sentiment nationaliste allemand, qui a poussé Hitler à tenter d’élargir le territoire allemand vers l’est pour renforcer l’autonomie économique allemande. On a donc commencé à voir la fierté nationale et ethnique comme menant inévitablement à une escalade armée. De nos jours, exprimer sa fierté d’être un membre du groupe majoritaire est suffisant pour être étiqueté comme transgresseur haineux du code moral.

Donc, depuis la deuxième guerre mondiale, le nationalisme, ou la fierté ethnique, est devenue une valeur sévèrement désapprouvée, souvent même criminellement. En Allemagne, faire le Hitlergruß est punissable d’une amende salée. À chaque attaque terroriste, pas moins de quelques minutes après les faits, on semble craindre que cela renforce la droite, comme si c’était une menace rampante et imminente, peu importe le contexte politique. La diversité et l’ouverture d’esprit envers les cultures minoritaires sont devenues des valeurs inaliénables de notre société à un tel point que la fierté de la majorité est devenue strictement interdite. Bref, nous sommes conditionnés à identifier et dénoncer les signes d’une potentielle émergence nationaliste jugée extrême.

Tellement préparés à affronter les facteurs qui ont mené à la dernière guerre mondiale, nous sommes complètement impuissants face au nouveau type de combat que l’islam mène contre le monde. Il s’avère impossible de combattre le terrorisme islamique sans briser le code moral que nous avons adopté pour éviter une autre catastrophe mondiale.

Hélas, affronter le terrorisme islamique requiert que nous enfreignions nos valeurs occidentales les plus chères. Ainsi, les discussions voulant contrer le terrorisme deviennent rapidement chaotiques, et n’aboutissent pas en une solution concrète. Après avoir été socialisés pendant des décennies à condamner les propos que nous percevons comme pouvant mener à une deuxième deuxième guerre mondiale, nous devenons incapables d’affronter la menace islamique sans briser notre code moral. Déterminés à apprendre des erreurs du passé, nous avons négligé d’autres formes d’extrémisme idéologique.

Similairement, nos avancées militaires sont inutiles pour contrer des attaques kamikazes sur notre territoire. Nous sommes aussi préparés à un combat armé à l’image de la deuxième guerre mondiale. Nous avons des armes d’une diversité sans précédent, comme des fusils pouvant tirer 100 balles à la seconde, des armes nucléaires, et des missiles autoguidés. Cependant, ces armes sont complètement dépassées pour contrer le terrorisme sur notre sol. Suite à un attentat terroriste, des policiers arrivent sur les lieux armés jusqu’aux dents, souvent pour réaliser que l’attentat suicide est déjà fini et l’auteur mort, et donc, il n’y a rien à faire. Pas besoin de mentionner que les portes avions et radars anti-missiles sont inutiles dans ces cas-là.

Nous sommes prêts à défendre nos frontières, mais cette fois-ci, l’ennemi est une idéologie qui traverse les frontières. Nous nous sommes préparés à la deuxième guerre mondiale, mais nous connaissons une nouvelle forme de conquête idéologique, contre laquelle nos armes sont inefficaces. Nous restons planqués dans nos tranchées pendant que les parachutistes islamistes sont déjà dans nos villes.